Crusher in cement plant

Production process of cement

In the times of Egypt and Greece, sintered and ground lime or plaster was used as cement for civil engineering and construction. In the 19th century, portland cement was produced in England. This manual covers energy conservation in portland cement production. A cement production plant consists of the following three processes. 1. Raw material process 2. Clinker burning process 3. Finish grinding process The raw material process and the clinker burning process are each classified into the wet process and the dry process. In the wet process, raw materials other than plaster are crushed to a diameter of approximately 20 mm by a crusher and mixed in an appropriate ratio using an automatic weigher, as shown in Fig. 1. Then, with water added thereto, the mixture is further made finer by a combined tube mill with a diameter of 2 to 3.5 m and a length of 10 to 14 m into slurry with a water content of 35 to 40%. The slurry is put in a storage tank with a capacity of several hundred tons, mixed to be homogenized with the corrective materials, and is sent to a rotary kiln for clinker burning. In the wet process, the slurry can be easily mixed but a large amount of energy is consumed in clinker burning due to water evaporation. In the dry process, crushed raw materials are dried in a cylindrical rotary drier having a diameter of 2 m and a length of about 20 m for example, mixed by an automatic weigher, ground and placed in storage tanks. The resultant mixture is further mixed to make the ingredients uniform, and sent to a rotary kiln for clinker burning. These processes are selected with consideration given to properties of raw materials, costs of fuel, conditions of location and others. For the wet process, plant construction cost is rather low and high-quality products are manufactured easily. On the other hand, the dry process consumes less energy and its running cost is lower. Crusher in cement plant The progress of technology is, however, eliminating the differences in quality between products from the above processes, while needs for energy conservation are getting increasingly strong. In future, the wet process will not be employed positively.

Characteristics of energy consumption in cement production

The cement industry is said to be an energy-intensive industry together with steel, paper and petrochemical industries. The percentage of energy cost in portland cement production cost is 20 to 30%. If the energy cost is reduced, the manufacturing cost is lowered, resulting in increasing the company’s profits. Fig. 2 shows the component ratio of fuel and electric power consumption by the whole cement industry in Japan. Ninety percent or more of fuel is consumed for clinker burning. About 40% of electric power is consumed for finish grinding, and a little under 30% each is consumed by the raw material process and the clinker burning process. The finish grinding process mainly consumes electric power for the mill, and the clinker burning process mainly for the fan. The raw material grinding process consumes a large volume of power for the mill and fan. The Japanese cement production process is mostly occupied by SP and NSP kilns and coal is used as fuel, so that the ratio of electric power consumption by the clinker burning process is high. In a plant mainly using a wet process kiln, the finish grinding process consumes power in a larger quantity than the aforementioned example. In such a case, energy conservation measures shall be taken by focusing on the clinker burning process for the fuel consumption and on the finish grinding process for the electric power consumption.

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